charmaudinamas.gaon, Chatterjee, C.C (). charmaudinamas.gact, Human physiology is the study of the functioning of the This book explanation of the working and draw connection of the human body C. C. CHATTERJEE. MEDICAL HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY by Dr. C. C. Chaterjee which put in its book was converted to Volume I & Volume II in the year Human Physiology Book By Chatterjee - [Free] Human Physiology Book [EPUB ] Textbook of medical Biochemistry pdf by Mn Chatterjea pdf.

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Human Physiology by Dr. Chandi Charan Chatterjee which made its first Inspite of our honest attempts to make the book as faultless as possible, some. Completely revised, entirely rewritten, thoroughly updated, and judiciously enlarged by a highly qualified and experienced team of editors. site com pdf cc chatterjee human physiology - wanbhol c.c. a great selection of similar used, new and collectible books available now at abebooks.

Chapter The Cardiovascular System: The Heart The period of contraction that the heart undergoes while it pumps blood into circulation is called systole. The period of relaxation that occurs as the chambers fill with blood is called diastole.

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Both the atria and ventricles undergo systole and diastole, and it is essential that these components be carefully regulated and coordinated to ensure blood is pumped efficiently to the body. Figure 1. Overview of the Cardiac Cycle. The cardiac cycle begins with atrial systole and progresses to ventricular systole, atrial diastole, and ventricular diastole, when the cycle begins again. Correlations to the ECG are highlighted.

Pressures and Flow Fluids, whether gases or liquids, are materials that flow according to pressure gradients—that is, they move from regions that are higher in pressure to regions that are lower in pressure. Accordingly, when the heart chambers are relaxed diastole , blood will flow into the atria from the veins, which are higher in pressure.

As blood flows into the atria, the pressure will rise, so the blood will initially move passively from the atria into the ventricles.

When the action potential triggers the muscles in the atria to contract atrial systole , the pressure within the atria rises further, pumping blood into the ventricles. During ventricular systole, pressure rises in the ventricles, pumping blood into the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle and into the aorta from the left ventricle. Again, as you consider this flow and relate it to the conduction pathway, the elegance of the system should become apparent.

Phases of the Cardiac Cycle At the beginning of the cardiac cycle, both the atria and ventricles are relaxed diastole. Blood is flowing into the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus. Blood flows into the left atrium from the four pulmonary veins. The two atrioventricular valves, the tricuspid and mitral valves, are both open, so blood flows unimpeded from the atria and into the ventricles.

Approximately 70—80 percent of ventricular filling occurs by this method. The two semilunar valves, the pulmonary and aortic valves, are closed, preventing backflow of blood into the right and left ventricles from the pulmonary trunk on the right and the aorta on the left. As the atrial muscles contract from the superior portion of the atria toward the atrioventricular septum, pressure rises within the atria and blood is pumped into the ventricles through the open atrioventricular tricuspid, and mitral or bicuspid valves.

At the start of atrial systole, the ventricles are normally filled with approximately 70—80 percent of their capacity due to inflow during diastole. Atrial systole lasts approximately ms and ends prior to ventricular systole, as the atrial muscle returns to diastole. It may be conveniently divided into two phases, lasting a total of ms.

Human physiology: Volume - I

At the end of atrial systole and just prior to atrial contraction, the ventricles contain approximately mL blood in a resting adult in a standing position. This volume is known as the end diastolic volume EDV or preload.

Initially, as the muscles in the ventricle contract, the pressure of the blood within the chamber rises, but it is not yet high enough to open the semilunar pulmonary and aortic valves and be ejected from the heart.

However, blood pressure quickly rises above that of the atria that are now relaxed and in diastole. This increase in pressure causes blood to flow back toward the atria, closing the tricuspid and mitral valves. Since blood is not being ejected from the ventricles at this early stage, the volume of blood within the chamber remains constant. Consequently, this initial phase of ventricular systole is known as isovolumic contraction, also called isovolumetric contraction see Figure 1.

In the second phase of ventricular systole, the ventricular ejection phase, the contraction of the ventricular muscle has raised the pressure within the ventricle to the point that it is greater than the pressures in the pulmonary trunk and the aorta.

Blood is pumped from the heart, pushing open the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves.

Pressure generated by the left ventricle will be appreciably greater than the pressure generated by the right ventricle, since the existing pressure in the aorta will be so much higher. Nevertheless, both ventricles pump the same amount of blood.

This quantity is referred to as stroke volume. Stroke volume will normally be in the range of 70—80 mL.

Since ventricular systole began with an EDV of approximately mL of blood, this means that there is still 50—60 mL of blood remaining in the ventricle following contraction.

This volume of blood is known as the end systolic volume ESV. Ventricular Diastole Ventricular relaxation, or diastole, follows repolarization of the ventricles and is represented by the T wave of the ECG. It too is divided into two distinct phases and lasts approximately ms.

During the early phase of ventricular diastole, as the ventricular muscle relaxes, pressure on the remaining blood within the ventricle begins to fall.


When pressure within the ventricles drops below pressure in both the pulmonary trunk and aorta, blood flows back toward the heart, producing the dicrotic notch small dip seen in blood pressure tracings. The semilunar valves close to prevent backflow into the heart. Since the atrioventricular valves remain closed at this point, there is no change in the volume of blood in the ventricle, so the early phase of ventricular diastole is called the isovolumic ventricular relaxation phase, also called isovolumetric ventricular relaxation phase see Figure 1.

In the second phase of ventricular diastole, called late ventricular diastole, as the ventricular muscle relaxes, pressure on the blood within the ventricles drops even further. Eventually, it drops below the pressure in the atria. When this occurs, blood flows from the atria into the ventricles, pushing open the tricuspid and mitral valves.

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A South Asian Edition. No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers.Initially, as the muscles in the ventricle contract, the pressure of the blood within the chamber rises, but it is not yet high enough to open the semilunar pulmonary and aortic valves and be ejected from the heart.

A few individuals may have both S3 and S4, and this combined sound is referred to as S7.

CC Chatterjee’s Human Physiology, Volume 1

The y-axis represents pressure. Figure 3.

All the illustrations have been redrawn, restructured and relabelled, and described keeping the presentation in tune and style with the recent international textbooks on the subject.

The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

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